Pedal Boats
  1. Where is the serial number located? The serial number is located in the back right hand corner on the outside of the hull. The number will be stamped on a silver plate, starts with HII or JOK and is 12 digits long.
  1. There is water inside my boat. Is this normal? Just like any boat, your boat may take on some water. Because of its flexible nature, a polyethylene boat is prone to accumulate a small amount of water between the deck and hull. Water may accumulate between the deck and hull due to rain, waves and condensation. This is natural, not a defect, and should be drained after use. Do not return to the retailer. Remove the drain plug located under bow rubrail and tip the boat up to drain. It is also normal for water to come out where the deck and hull meet if there is an excessive amount of water. Secure the drain plug (lubrication may be needed) after draining. Remove battery before draining your boat.
  1. How should I store my boat in the winter? Winter can be very hard on boats. We suggest a mooring cover, which prevents water and debris from accumulating.
  1. There is black oil coming out of my bushings and running into the foot well. Is this normal? After the first few uses you may see a black watermark down the inside of your boat. This is simply the paint on the crank inside the bushing wearing off. This is natural and can be cleaned with warm water and any standard detergents.
Pro 120 & Sportsman   
  1. Where can I mount a depth finder? A depth finder may be mounted on either side of the stern on our fishing boats. Screws need to be placed a minimum of 3" above the bottom of the boat.
  1. Where is the serial number located? The serial number is located in the back right hand corner on the outside of the hull. The number will be stamped on a silver plate, starts with HII or JOK and is 12 digits long.
  1. There is water inside my boat. Is this normal? Just like any boat, your boat may take on some water. Because of its flexible nature, a polyethylene boat is prone to accumulate a small amount of water between the deck and hull. Water may accumulate between the deck and hull due to rain, waves and condensation. This is natural, not a defect, and should be drained after use. Do not return to the retailer. The through hull drain plug is located in the back of the boat. Please be sure to secure the drain plug after draining. Remove battery before draining your boat.
  1. Can I trailer my boat with the motor on? Outboard motors on small boats should always be removed when trailing.
  1. What type of motor do I need? A standard short shaft is required. Boat and transom are designed for a two stroke 15 hp motor. Not recommended for 4-cycle motors over 8 hp.
Jon Boat    
  1. Where can I mount a depth finder? A depth finder may be mounted on either side of the stern motor mount on our fishing boats. Screws need to be placed close to the motor mount plate for wood support.
  1. Where is the serial number located? The serial number is located in the back right hand corner on the outside of the hull. The number will be stamped on a silver plate, starts with HII or JOK and is 12 digits long.
  1. There is water inside my boat. Is this normal? Just like any boat, your boat may take on some water. Because of its flexible nature, a polyethylene boat is prone to accumulate a small amount of water between the deck and hull. Water may accumulate between the deck and hull due to rain, waves and condensation. This is natural, not a defect, and should be drained after each use. Do not return to the retailer. The deck drain located in the stern of the boat eliminates any water in the back portion of the deck. The other drain can be found on the side of the hull. It eliminates any water between the deck and hull. Please be sure to secure the drain plug after draining. Remove battery before draining your boat.
  1. Can I trailer my boat with the motor on? Outboard motors on small boats should always be removed when trailing.
  1. What size shaft do I need on my trolling motor? A standard short shaft is required. Boat and transom are designed for a two stroke, 6 hp motor.

Sportsman      
Where can I mount a depth finder? A depth finder may be mounted on either side of the stern on our fishing boats. Screws need to be placed a minimum of 3" above the bottom of the boat.
  1. Where is the serial number located? The serial number is located in the back right hand corner on the outside of the hull. The number will be stamped on a silver plate, starts with HII or JOK and is 12 digits long.
  1. There is water inside my boat. Is this normal? Just like any boat, your boat may take on some water. Because of its flexible nature, a polyethylene boat is prone to accumulate a small amount of water between the deck and hull. Water may accumulate between the deck and hull due to rain, waves and condensation. This is natural, not a defect, and should be drained after each use. Do not return to the retailer. The drain plug is located in the front of the boat. Please be sure to secure the drain plug (lubrication may be needed) after draining. Remove battery before draining your boat.
  1. Can I trailer my boat with the motor on? Outboard motors on small boats should always be removed when trailing.
  1. What size shaft do I need on my trolling motor? A standard short shaft is required.
Sportyak     
Where is the serial number located? The serial number is located in the back right hand corner on the outside of the hull. The number will be stamped on a silver plate, starts with HII or JOK and is 12 digits long.
There is water inside my boat. Is this normal? Just like any boat, your boat may take on some water. Because of its flexible nature, a polyethylene boat is prone to accumulate a small amount of water between the deck and hull. Water may accumulate between the deck and hull due to rain, waves and condensation. This is natural, not a defect, and should be drained after each use. Do not return to the retailer. The drain plug is located in the back of the boat. Please be sure to secure the drain plug (lubrication may be needed) after draining. Remove battery before draining your boat.
What type of Canoe?
HULL SHAPE AND CANOE PERFORMANCE
 
(First published in CANOE magazine, October 1993 )
    Selecting a canoe can be an intimidating experience when a new buyer is first confronted with the wide variety of available styles. CANOE magazine, for example, lists 11 different tandem canoes in their 1990 BUYERS GUIDE. Seven of these, Cruising, Touring, Down River, Casual Recreation, Weekender, Sportsman, and Day Tripper, sound like fairly similar designs. The differences are real, however, and largely due to small details in the underbody shape. How does a buyer sort out some of the subtle factors that go into making a canoe feel just right? Maybe your trying to decide between two similar designs, and you notice that one has one inch more draft, and a slightly more vee'd midships section than the other. What difference will this make? Is the difference important? Are there some "rules" we can learn to help make the our selection, or do we have to rely on antidotal evidence from friends, salesmen, or other "experts".
    Naval architects have developed design rules based on calculations that predict speed potential, drag, stability, and displacement. These rules are validated by experiments conducted in towing basins, and other carefully controlled tests. Canoe design, on the other hand, has always been more art then "science", and has followed an experimental approach in its evolution. A canoe designer has a new idea, builds a prototype, and tests it in the water (or marketplace). This approach results in a slow, steady, improvement of the technology, but new, or unusual, designs are difficult to evaluate analytically, since little quantified data exists. Using some of the basic processes developed by naval architects can help evaluate canoe designs, at least in a general sense.
    For example, I designed a 15 foot tandem canoe for a customer interested in flat water, family day trips and camping. My design had several inches of rocker, and asymmetrical waterlines. The customer was concerned that the boat would not track well enough, and float out of trim. He wasn't sure why, It just "looked different"! Using the analytical approach described later in this article, I was able to convince him that the boat would be suitable for his intended use, not do anything too "strange", and would still have reasonable performance.
    One reason that a more analytical approach to canoe design is now possible is due to the revolutionary change in Computer Aided Design (CAD) capability in the last few years. As an aero-space engineer (my 8 - 5 life), I have used CAD tools for many years to synthesize and evaluate designs. Just five years ago, this capability required main frame computers, and dozens of engineering specialists to write the software. Now, personal computers have developed, along with engineering software, to the point where it is practical to use them in canoe design. The first CAD programs were used by canoe builders to produce "fair" hull shapes and extremely accurate building templates. Now, more advanced programs are available that can model hydrodynamic variables such as drag, stability, and even structural properties (stress and strain). These new tools are now available to help us evaluate canoe designs, and gain additional insight as to what features effect basic performance.
    A computer program can generate a great deal of information in a short period of time. The trick is in asking them the right questions, and then interpreting the answers, using lots of good judgement, and common sense. One approach is to compare, using simple calculations, features that seem to have an impact on performance. Only three variables control what a canoe's underwater shape looks like; the amount of bottom rocker (profile view), the cross-section shape (section view), and the waterplane shape (plan view). Unfortunately, these variables can be combined into an infinite variety of hull shapes, all with different performance characteristics. I decided to hold as many of these variables constant as possible, and then make small changes to the remaining variables, and see if the results make any sense.
    To keep the study simple, I focused on looking at the effect of rocker on a standard, two place, 16 foot, touring canoe. "Rocker" is used to describe the side view of the keel. A canoe with a flat bottom has no rocker. The rest of the basic dimensions were fixed at 400 pounds total weight (the canoe, two riders, and gear), a waterline length of 14.5 feet, a deck beam of 34.5 inches, and waterline beam of 32 inches. Four canoes were designed to these basic values, using the PROLINES yacht design program, and an IBM 386 computer. To minimize the number of variables, all four designs were symmetrical, started with the same basic lines, and were then modified (as little as possible) into the following configurations:
1. flat sections, flat bottom, no rise at ends
2. flat sections, flat bottom, raised ends, 1 inch more draft than #1
3. slightly arched sections, slight rocker along entire bottom, 1.11 inch more draft than #1
4. deep vee sections, more midships rocker, 3.8 inch more draft than #1, and finer sections than 1,2, or 3
    Modifications began by "pulling" down the center line profile view to the desired rocker. Next, each sectional view was "adjusted" to fair smoothly into the new centerline, and the plan and profile views checked for distortion. The hydrodynamics were calculated, and more changes made to the underbody sections until the desired displacement and waterline length were reached. This typically required between 6 to 10 iterations on the computer for each design. A typical iteration requires the computer to "think" for about 5 minutes. Before these computer tools were available, this amount of work would have required hundreds of hours of detailed, manual drafting and calculation labor!
    In addition to satisfying the computer, the final configurations were all reasonably good looking boats. Figure 1 shows the section and profile lines for the four basic canoes. The first two are very conventional. Number 3 begins to have noticeable rocker, and number 4 is fairly radical, with a large amount of rocker and finer ends. Weight varied from 394.8 to 402.0 pounds., waterline lengths were between 14.8 and 14.9 feet, and Waterline beam dimensions were within 1.2 inches of each other.
    After calculating "smooth" lines for each design, the PROLINES program next did a series of detailed hydrodynamic calculations. These calculations included the midships cross sectional area, the moment required to trim the bow 1 inch, the weight required to settle the boat one inch, the righting moment at various degrees of heel, the underwater lateral area, total wetted surface area, and hydrodynamic drag (caused by both waves and surface friction). The stability calculations assumed that the 400 pound weight was concentrated 12 inches above the waterline, and the drag calculations were computed for a boat speed of 4.13 knots. Effects of tumble home and flare were not considered in the stability calculation.
    My investigation of "rocker" took a slightly different approach. Rocker is usually associated with highly maneuverable boats, like those designed for white water. To quantify the effect that "rocker" has on the turn resistance of a canoe, it is necessary to determine the torque needed to make the canoe push aside the water while turning. During a turn, the lateral underbody of the canoe pushes against the water, which resists this motion. The water pushed by the ends of the canoe contribute more to this resistance than water near the center, since the ends have a longer "lever arm" to act upon. In addition, the ends of the canoe also swing through more distance than the center areas, which pushes the water at the ends faster, again increasing the force on the ends. The bottom line is that turn resistance is influenced by both the size of the lateral area, and how this area is distributed from the center of the canoe.
    A basic relationship common in engineering, called the "moment of inertia", takes into account these factors, and is a good approximation for quantifying the turn resistance of a canoe. Canoes with a small moment of inertia will turn very quickly, and since the ends of the canoe count heavily in the calculation, it is more complicated than just measuring rocker or draft. To include this factor, each canoe's lateral area was imputed into another CAD program (naturally), where the moment of inertia of the underbody lateral area was calculated (the units of "area moments of inertia" are area times distance squared, or distance to the 4th. power).
    The results from these programs are summarized in table 1.
 
CANOE DESIGN
 
 
 

#1, flat, no rocker

#2, flat, raised ends

#3, slight rocker

#4, max rocker

STABILITY

    

maximum beam (in.)

34.5

34.5

34.4

34.7

waterline beam (in.)

32.2

32.2

31.0

31.8

max. righting moment (ft.lbs./deg.)

77/20

82/20

65/20

13/10

midships sectional area (sq. in.)

99

102

110

141

moment to trim bow 1 in. (ft.lbs.)

95

95

93

62

maximum draft (in.)

3.6

3.7

4.7

6.4

MANEUVERABILITY

    

lateral area (sq. ft.)

5.3

3.9

4.1

5.1

moment of inertia (ft^4)

72

63

56

49

PERFORMANCE

    

weight to increase draft 1 in. (lbs)

144

145

140

115

wetted surface area (sq. ft.)

32

29

28

24

total drag force, at 4.1 knots (lbs)

7.7

7.5

6.9

6.5

TABLE 1
 
    The results from a study like this never yield absolute answers. They can identify trends, however, and allow for informed comparisons between similar canoes (don't try to predict kayak performance with this data). My conclusions are:
STABILITY: Designs 1&2 are very stable, with #2 having a slight edge (I have no idea why). #3 has 20% less stability, and would require some attention and a higher skill level. #4 is close to unstable, and would be a real handful to control. Stability reduces with increased rocker, as the underbody begins to take the shape of a "ball". Trim is effected in much the same way. The first three are all similar with respect to trim moments and weights, and should not be too sensitive to load changes. #4 is far more sensitive, since its flotation is concentrated in the center of the canoe. It appears that some rocker can be tolerated, but anything extreme would have poor stability and load carrying characteristics.
MANEUVERABILITY: Raising the ends of a flat, no rocker design (#2) reduces the moment of inertia (turn resistance) by 9%. Adding a slight rocker (#3) reduced it by 23%, which should not be a problem for an experienced paddler. As expected, #4 has the lowest turn resistance, and would be difficult to keep in a straight line. As a second thought, I added a 4"x8" skeg to the back of #4, and it brought the moment of inertia back up to 63. No real surprises here, except that a slight amount of rocker seems to help turn performance a lot more than raised ends. Moving water with the ends of the canoe takes a lot of effort!
PERFORMANCE: As the amount of rocker increases, the cross sectional area increases, but wave drag is reduced. This sounds backwards. Pushing a larger area through the water should result in more drag (paddles work that way, right?). Wrong. Wave drag on a canoe hull is more sensitive to how "sharp" the waterlines are than it is to cross sectional area. Even though the midships cross sectional area of #4 is 42% more than #1, its predicted drag is 16 % LESS. Canoes #1&2 push the water apart quickly, and pay a drag penalty. Rocker takes volume out of the ends of the boat, which tends to sharpen the waterlines. Sharp, fine ends are common in racing designs, but it's interesting that even a slight amount, like #3, results in 11% less drag than #1, and 9% less than #2. This amount of reduced drag would be very noticeable after a few hours of hard paddling.
Like I mentioned earlier, canoe design is more art then science. No one has a "perfect" design, or knows all the answers. You can use the general conclusions from this article to help your judgement, but always try the canoe out on the water, configured the way your most likely to use it. Don't be reluctant to try one that's a "little" different! My next canoe will be similar to #3, but just a tad asymmetric. Not because the computer says its good, I just like the way it looks!
Looking after your canoe or Kayak
STORAGE:
Your polyethylene kayak requires minimum attention during storage, to avoid damage and maximise the life span, do not expose to years of storage in direct sunlight. All our kayaks have ultra violet inhibitors blended into the polyethylene to protect them from sunlight. Storage out of prolonged exposure to direct sun light will add to the life of your kayak.
Where possible your kayak should be stored on a flat surface or suspended horizontally from bow and stern carrying handles. Avoid point loading or storing on thin bars, and storing other equipment on top. Storing over long periods like this, will ensure that where curves do not provide rigidity and strength the flexible polyethylene will not distort or deform in contact areas
TRANSPORT:
The best way to transport your kayak by car is upside down on a roof rack or foam pad. On edge is also acceptable you have custom made upright bars on your rack which will hold the kayak securely (See our store). Foam or pipe insulation (available from Diy Stores) on the rack will offer additional protection and help stop the kayak sliding on the rack. On all vehicles a line tied from bow and stern to the car bumper or tow bar will stop movement fore and aft and is a must. Do not over tighten straps or ropes, as this may distort the kayak and avoid leaving in direct sunlight for prolonged periods.
REPAIRING DENTS HOLES:
 
We now stock West Systems  2 Part G Flex Epoxy Plastic Repair System. Details below or purchase kayak & canoe hardware.
http://www.westsystem.com/ss/g-flex-epoxy
http://forums.sailinganarchy.com/index.php?showtopic=99758
A polyethylene kayak unlike a fibreglass boat can still be paddled with a dent in it. Should you have the misfortune to dent your kayak it is often rectified by leaving in the sun to warm (all plastic has a memory). If this does not work, gently apply additional heat to the area with a hair dryer, boiling water or heat gun. NOT TOO HOT! Apply pressure from the other side and to push out dent, and cool. A suction cup can be used if you cannot reach from the inside.   Apply heat slowly as it takes time to disapate in through the polyethylene.
ADVANTAGES OF POLYETHYLENE:
 
Most of our kayaks and Canoe are made from linear  polyethylene; this enables our manufacturers to produce these products at affordable prices. All our kayaks are very durable and can be dragged freely across a sandy beach; this treatment would soon wear through a fibreglass kayak. PE offers lots of advantages for kayakers because it is virtually indestructible when in use. unlike fibreglass which is stiffer and brittle and may crack and haze through use. Our polyethylene kayaks are flexible and give under impact. The moulded compound curves on our kayaks provide the rigidity and strength it needs. If you do hole or tear your kayak it can be welded up using standard plastic welding equipment.
Our boats are recyclable so when you, or the next person has finished with the boat and it is totally worn out (many years from now) it can be cut up and recycled for use again.
Which Material?
 
 
High Density Polyethylene (H.D.P.E.): Machine extruded and very consistent. UV stabilized means that ultra violet sun ray inhibitors have been put into the material prior to forming. Its impact resistance and memory capacity (ability to regain original shape after impact) are great. Because the polyethylene resin is coloured throughout, the surface colour cannot be scratched off. It is very hard to keep anything stuck to it. Will usually not dent. A negative for this material is weight vs size.
Ram-X: Ram-X is a thermo plastic. The material is semi flexible and has a memory. Thicker is better, but also heavier. UV is tough the material. Will usually not dent. A negative for this material is weight, and it can be cut by sharp objects.
ABS: Known for its great shine it can give, can have the look of a fibreglass boat because of the clear coat finish. Extruded product, very consistent. The UV inhibitors are in the clear coat. One of the best rigid boat materials as far as looks and impact resistance. Less brittle, than Fiberglas. Also used on the outside of composite constructions such as Royolex.
Aluminium: Main advantage is no double hull construction that traps water; lightweight compared to HDPE or RamX extruded very consistent metal product.& comes in different gauges, thicker is stronger, less noisy, heavier and but more durable. Single or multi piece hull construction is important, no long hand made seams below the water line is better in the long run. In the case of rivets in the construction, where they are and how many is important. Some are assembled with no rivets or "all welded". Other considerations may apply, 
Kevlar: Usually a lighter weight material than Fiberglas. Simply because the fibres in Kevlar are much stronger, requiring less material to achieve the same strength. Hand laid, more likely to have problems with construction. UV inhibitors are in the gel coat (paint).
Fiberglas: Generally lighter weight than the ABS and HDPE however brittle. Material is hand laid, more likely to have problems with construction and consistency of the surface. UV inhibitors are in the gel coat (paint). Fiberglas is easily cracked and not easy to repair.
Wood/Duralight: A modern method that replaces traditional canvas with a vinyl impregnated canvas that requires little maintenance and has all the positive features of the wood/epoxy product.
Wood/Epoxy: Often referred to as wood glass construction, these craft are built using the same traditional method as wood/canvas. However, instead of canvas they use a clear bonded epoxy on the outside of the hull. There is an invisible layer of fibreglass cloth between the wood and epoxy so that the natural beauty of the wood is visible on the outside. The entire boat is then varnished. Lighter weight and easy maintenance are two advantages of wood/epoxy construction. Best suited for lakes, ponds and deep rivers.
 
 
Inflatable Boat Materials


PVC: Inexpensive, easy to damage and stretch. When buying, newer is better because of the creasing effect of the material. UV inhibitor throughout the material.
Polyester Laminate: The polyester fabric density is what increases the strength. Fabric density is measured in denier or decitex. 1000 Denier is equal to 1100 decitex. UV inhibitors are in the polymer coatings. Two layers are better than one. When buying, newer is better because of the creasing effect of the material. Beware of polyester laminate prdocuts that are over 2 years old!
Hypalon: The fabric in the laminate is out of nylon instead of polyester. More expensive, stronger than polyester fabric. UV inhibitors are throughout the coating. Again, two layers are better than one. When buying, new is better because of the creasing effect of the material. Beware of hypalon products that are over 2 years old!


Smoke Free Zones! 100% kiln dried timber is available in the our shop. Smoke control areas the rules:

Many parts of the UK are smoke control areas where you can’t emit smoke from a chimney unless you’re burning an authorised fuel or using exempt appliances, eg burners or stoves this applies to stoves ovens etc that are located inside a building and with flue. Any of these appliances that release smoke through a chimney of a building - eg a summerhouse - can only burn authorised fuel or must be exempt.

You can use outdoor barbecues, chimneas, fireplaces or pizza ovens in smoke controlled areas.

https://www.gov.uk/smoke-control-area-rules         Last updated: 23 September 2016